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In this 96 step mega-tutorial, you will go through all the motions necessary to construct a complete, photorealistic kitchen scene in Blender, and then render it with Yafaray (a free ray tracing, open source rendering engine). Make sure that you have Yafaray and Python 2.5 installed. For more information on installation check out www.yafaray.org.
Press "a" to select all default objects (cube, camera, and light) and then press delete.
With the mouse in the 3D view, press "Space", and add a plane.
Scale the Plane along the 'X' axis, by pressing "S", then "X", and moving the mouse. Left click the mouse to release.
Press "TAB" to enter into 'edit' mode. Then press "B", and drag select the vertices on the right.
Press "E" to extrude the selected edge. Move the mouse along the 'X' axis, and press "ctrl" while moving. You can also use the widget arrows to move.
Extrude the edges of the plane to get the "C" shape as shown.
Select all of the vertices by pressing "A", and extrude the region to an adequate height.
Press "TAB" to get out of 'edit' mode, then select the mesh, and press "shift + D" to duplicate it. Scale it down along the 'Z' axis. This new object will be the top slab.
Place the slab right on the top of the base. Pull out the faces a bit to make it slightly bigger than the base, then press "Tab" to exit 'edit' mode.
For the sink, add a cylinder with 16 vertices. Make sure you are in the top view.
In 'edit' mode, select all of the vertices, as shown, and delete them.
Extrude the vertices. This will be the corner of the sink.
Press "F9" to bring out the "Editing" panels. Add a "Mirror" modifier.
Enable both 'X' and 'Y' "Mirror" settings.
In 'edit' mode, adjust the position and scale of the vertices, to form a base for the sink. Bring the extreme vertices together, and press "Do Clipping" in the "Mirror" modifier panel. This will make the center vertices stick together.
Press "Tab" to get out of 'edit' mode, then press "Apply" in the "Mirror" modifier panel.
Again, in 'edit' mode, select all of the vertices ("A"), and press "shift + F" to fill the mesh. Then press "alt + J" to make quad faces.
Select all of the vertices and extrude them, shaping it into a sink.
Select the topmost faces and delete them.
Hit "alt + Right click" on the last edge to select an edge loop. Extrude it downwards, and then exit 'edit' mode.
Cut a hole in the slab for the sink, by selecting the slab, entering 'edit' mode, and pressing "ctrl + r" to loop cut. Cut it twice.
Select the new top face, and press "e" to extrude. Now press "Esc" to exit extrude, and leave the new face in place. Extrude this face downwards.
Select the unwanted face (the lower face of the slab) and delete it.
Place the sink on to the slab. Adjust the vertices of the slab accordingly, and delete the unwanted face of the base mesh.
Create the tap as shown, and then add a "subsurf" modifier to it. Place it near the sink.
For the stove, start with a cube.
Extrude the front and bottom face. Loop cut the cube once.
Extrude the new face at the top, and translate the edge to get the shape right.
Add two new cubes, scale them, and then move them closer to the main body.
Extrude the front face of the lower cube, and then scale it down.
Extrude this same face again, and push it slightly inward.
Construct the handle from a cylinder as shown, and then move it into position.
Add a cylinder, and loop cut it once.
Select the new faces, by pressing "alt + right click" to loop select, and then extrude them.
Build the following shape from a box as shown.
In the top view ( num pad 7), place the 3D pointer in front of this new shape.
Press "F9" to bring up the "Edit" buttons. In the 'Mesh Tools' panel, increase the "Degr" value to '360', the "Steps" to '5', enable "clockwise", and finally press the "Spin Dup" button.
Click on the 3D view, and there will be five duplicates in a circular pattern. Make sure you are in the top view.
Select all of the vertices by pressing "A", and then press the "remove double" button to remove any extra duplicated vertices.
Place the two parts together as shown.
Add a cylinder. Extrude its top, scale it down, and then extrude it inwards.
Put all of the parts together, and then re-size the cylinder. Press "ctrl + j" to combine the parts, and make them one single object.
Place this new piece on the top of the stove (it will be the burner...if you hadn't already noticed:P). Duplicate it three times and place the burners accordingly. Scale two of them down.
Construct the knob using a cylinder and a cube joined together. Duplicate it three times.
Place the stove into position, and scale it accordingly.
Duplicate the base, and move the vertices to make it thinner.
Delete the four vertices as shown.
Loop cut the front portion twice.
Loop cut it again horizontally, and delete the edge as shown. This will be the space for exhaust.
Select four Vertices, or two opposite edges, and then press "F" to a make face.
Add a cube, scale it down vertically, and place it above the stove.
Loop cut the cube, and then push the top vertices in.
Add another cube, and scale it in on one axis. This will become the doors of the cabinets.
Add another cube, and scale it to make the handle. This should be a separate object.
Press "B" to activate the "select" tool. Now drag select both objects, and then press "shift + D" to duplicate and place them around the upper shelf. Scale them accordingly.
Duplicate them again to make the doors for the lower base. You can make drawers too if you like. The handles should be at the top for the doors on the lower base.
Start adding walls. Add a plane, and re-size it accordingly.
Extrude the edges of the plane.
To cut a window, select the face of the wall and extrude it, by pressing "E" to extrude, then immediately pressing "esc", and then scaling it down. Position it where you want the window.
Delete the face.
Construct the window frame from boxes as shown.
Now place it onto the wall.
Add more planes for the floor and ceiling.
Add a camera, and a "sun light". Point the light direction as if it were entering through the window.
Time to start adding materials. Press "F5" to bring out the "materials" panel in the "button" window.
Select the slab, and press the "Add New" button, in the "texture" panel. Don't bother about editing the color, or any of the other details for the material settings. There are separate material settings under the "Yafaray" rendering options. Colors, gloss, and other attributes will be defined there. Just add an image texture in the Blender materials, and name this material "slab".
Press "F6" to bring out the "texture" panels. Select "Image" under "Texture Type".
Load the image you want to assign for the slab. A Dark green marble will be good.
Similarly, assign a wood texture image to the cabinet, and name the material "wood"
To assign the same material to different objects, select the object, and in the "material" panel, press the arrow button on the left hand side of the "Add New" button, and then select the texture from the list to assign it.
Assign a different wood image texture to the floor, and name it "Floor". For the rest of the objects (like metal) where no images are required, the materials will be assigned under the "Yafaray" material settings.
Split the 3D view in two. From the "Render" menu, select "YafaRay Export", and you should get the "Yafaray" button window.
Select the "Sun Lamp" in the 3D view. Press the "Object/Light/Camera" button in the "YafaRay" button panel. Select "Sun", increase the power to 2.0, and change the color.
Select the floor mesh, then press the "Material" button in the "Yafaray" button window, and press "From active object".
Bellow the "Refresh Preview" button, under the settings panel, select "Glossy" as the material type. Turn the "Glossy reflection", and "Exponent" sliders up a bit.
Similarly, set the materials for all of wooden cabinets.
Use a "coated_glossy" material for the slab. The new "IOR" value will give it a mirror like reflection, in addition to the gloss. Always be sure to add and name the materials in Blender first, and then press "From active object" in the "Yafaray options", so the material will be added using the same name in the "Yafaray" material list.
Add a "shinydiffusemat" material for the wall.
Set a "coated_glossy" material type for the sink, tap, chimney, cabinet handles, and stove (but a lighter one for the the sink and tap).
Select the front face of the oven in 'edit' mode, and press "P" to make it a separate object.
Add new material in the Blender "material" panel, and name it "glass". Select the new object, and press "From active object" in the "Yafaray" material settings. Use "shinydiffusemat" as the material type, and give it a dark colour, and a bit of mirror strength and transparency.
Add a black material to the stove burner and knobs.
Press the "Settings" button in the "Yafaray" window, and change "Direct mapping" to "Photon mapping".
With the rest of the settings untouched, press the "Render" button in the "Yafaray" window. This is just to check the results we get with the default settings of photon mapping. You should get something noisy, as depicted below.
Under the "Photon settings", enable "Use background". This will use the background's light and colour values. Under the "Background settings" select "Single Color", and choose a sky blue color.
Before rendering any other image, enable "Clay Render" under the general settings options. This will discard all of the material options, and render all objects with one single material, which will make the rendering a bit faster, and help you to check your lighting and shadows before doing the final render.
Push "Render" to see the difference. "Yafaray" should now use the color and light values from the background, but it should still have noise.
Under the "AA settings" increase the "AA sample" to '6', and set the type to "mitchell".
Press "Render", and the results should look much better.
To correct the light leaks in the corners, increase "Photons" to '1000000' or more, and "Diff.radius" to '4'. To further reduce the noise, increase the "FG samples" to '96'.
Now the result should be much richer, and less noisy.
Turn off "clay render", and render again.
Add an 'Area Light' just outside the window, facing inwards, and few 'lamps' under the top cabinets.
Do a quick clay render, and notice the difference between this image and the last clay render.
Turn off "Clay render" to see the new results with the materials applied.
Now you can play with the different materials, colors, and light settings...
until you are totally happy with your results!
Hope you enjoyed this tut!!